The heat conductivity of graphite measured in the direction of the plane of layers is five times more than the heat conductivity measured in the cross direction; electric conductivity in the plane direction in ten thousand times exceeds conductivity in the cross direction.
Unique ability of atoms of carbon to connect among themselves to formation of strong and long chains and cycles led to emergence of enormous number of the various compounds of carbon studied by organic chemistry.
and equality is possible only in that case when in top three sides meet. In our case, for ideal fuleren and for the nanotubes soldered since both ends it it is executed. From here it is visible that exactly 12 pentagons can be a part them.
Resolution of modern microscopes is insufficient for direct distinction of nanotubes with a different hiralnost therefore the main way of determination of this parameter is connected with measurement of their diameter.
So, in this part of work Euler's theorem which allowed us to prove theoretically need of reorganization of the graphite plane for cases when reactions happen to formation of fuleren and the soldered nanotubes was proved, and also the ratio for polygons was found in a case when consideration of real nanotubes with defects takes place.
Let on the sphere (or gomeomorfny to it a surface) coherent columns G, having In tops both P edges and breaking the sphere for of areas (sides); then equality V-R+G=2 is fair (. It is Euler's theorem.
If now (coming back to a surface of Q on which the columns G1G we will throw out its part located in M from the column G1G, the new count for whom, however, the number of V-R+G remains same, as well as for the column G1G Really, instead of In' tops will turn out, P' edges and' the sides which were available in M we will have 0 tops, 0 edges now and one side (a polygon of M), i.e. number B' - P' +' it will be replaced on 0-0+1, and, it agrees (changes nothing.
Carbon - chemical element, a symbol With, atomic number 6, atomic mass 101 Usual forms of existence of carbon in a free state is diamond and graphite, meet in the nature. The main differences in a structure of diamond and graphite - a crystal lattice.
There is other effective way of receiving nanotubes, filling with metals and their connections, is based on technology of catalytic synthesis of nanotubes in which metals are used as the catalyst. I.e. the opening in the anode is filled with mix of graphite and metal powder.
Columns G' contains n of edges and too does not contain contours, i.e. is a tree. According to the assumption of induction for G tree' a ratio (it is fair and therefore in G' there is n+1 top. Let's notice now that only one end of the added edge of r is top column G' (otherwise, having taken in G' the simple chain connecting an and b and having added r edge to this chain, we would receive a contour in column G). Therefore, at addition of an edge of r in column G there is one new edge and one new top. In other words, columns G has n+2 of top and n+1 an edge, and therefore a ratio (for it it is fair. The carried-out induction proves equality (for any tree.
Now it is clear that if we from the column G1G2 will throw out its parts located in all determined by the count of G1, we will receive new columns G * for which the number of V-R+G will be same, as well as for the column G1G2 In other words,